References

The technology has been tested, improved, documented and verified through more then 30 waterworks in Scandinavia, Switzerland, Slovakia and Austria.

Stoholm, Denmark facility supplying clean water to approximately 5000 people.

Operational data:
The water plant outside the city of Nyköping, 100 km south of Stockholm has a production rate of 17,000 m³ per day (or 5,5 million m³ per annum). The plant was built in two stages; the original plant was set up in 1981 and then expanded in 1993.

Surface water is extracted at 6-7 meters depth in the lake Yngaren, which is situated 200-300 meters from the shoreline.

The surface water is transferred to the water plant through 15 km of piping and surface infiltrated into three basins in the galaciofluvialdeposit (total infiltration area 10,000m2 ). The process of surface infiltration ensures that the groundwater recharge is sufficient for the actual groundwater withdrawal. With appropriate residence time of at least 2 weeks the infiltrated surface water obtains groundwater character, however with elevated concentrations of iron and manganese.

After 3-6 weeks the infiltrated surface water, now with groundwater characteristics, reaches the plant, at the zone with an oxygen content optimized for microbial iron and manganese oxidation, all controlled and maintained by the BioEcoTech® plant. The microbial iron oxidation begins at the outer border of the zone. When sufficient organic carbon is available (i.e. in form of dead iron oxidizers) then the microbial process begins.

The BioEcoTech® plant is dimensioned to last for a minimum 100 years, ensuring consistent  removal of heavy metals from the groundwater before the water reaches the production well without any clogging of the wells. The potable water is withdrawn from a depth of 30 meters and ready for distribution to the end consumers.